#### Welcome to Science4All

My name is Lê and I believe that the greatest challenge in education is to make science and math appealing.

This is why I aim at bringing enthusiasm and excitement to the readers’ learning experience.

Science4All is also available in French.

The Cubic Ball of the 2014 FIFA World Cup The Cubic Ball of the 2014 FIFA World Cup

By Lê Nguyên Hoang |

I know this sounds crazy. Even stupid. But Adidas did design a cubic ball, called brazuca, for the 2014 World Cup. And, yet, this cubic ball is rounder than any previous ball in football History. How is it possible? This article explains it.

By Lê Nguyên Hoang |

**Updated:**2016-02 |**Views**: 6344I know this sounds crazy. Even stupid. But Adidas did design a cubic ball, called brazuca, for the 2014 World Cup. And, yet, this cubic ball is rounder than any previous ball in football History. How is it possible? This article explains it.

Univalent Foundations of Mathematics Univalent Foundations of Mathematics

By Lê Nguyên Hoang |

In an effort to make mathematics more computable, a consortium of today’s greatest mathematicians have laid out new foundations. Amazingly, they all lie upon one single axiom, called univalence. The goal of this axiom is to make formal mathematics more similar to informal mathematics. With univalence, our Arabic numbers aren’t just like natural numbers; They are natural numbers. Univalence also has unforeseen and mesmerizing consequences.

By Lê Nguyên Hoang |

**Updated:**2015-12 |**Prerequisites:**Type Theory: A Modern Computable Paradigm for Math, Homotopy Type Theory and Higher Inductive Types |**Views**: 3229In an effort to make mathematics more computable, a consortium of today’s greatest mathematicians have laid out new foundations. Amazingly, they all lie upon one single axiom, called univalence. The goal of this axiom is to make formal mathematics more similar to informal mathematics. With univalence, our Arabic numbers aren’t just like natural numbers; They are natural numbers. Univalence also has unforeseen and mesmerizing consequences.

The Thrilling Physics of Resonance The Thrilling Physics of Resonance

By Lê Nguyên Hoang |

From the destruction of bridges and buildings to the foundations of electromagnetism and quantum mechanics, through their uses by radios or our ears,resonance is a counter-intuitive underlying phenomenon which shapes our reality. But amazingly, they can be made amazingly visual by playing with head massagers!

By Lê Nguyên Hoang |

**Updated:**2016-01 |**Views**: 13509From the destruction of bridges and buildings to the foundations of electromagnetism and quantum mechanics, through their uses by radios or our ears,resonance is a counter-intuitive underlying phenomenon which shapes our reality. But amazingly, they can be made amazingly visual by playing with head massagers!

The Amazing Physics of Water in Trees The Amazing Physics of Water in Trees

By Lê Nguyên Hoang |

As explained by Derek Muller on Veritasium, the flow of water in trees involves complex physical phenomena including pressure, osmosis, negative pressure, capillarity and evapotranspiration. What seems simple will blow your mind!

By Lê Nguyên Hoang |

**Updated:**2016-01 |**Views**: 35247As explained by Derek Muller on Veritasium, the flow of water in trees involves complex physical phenomena including pressure, osmosis, negative pressure, capillarity and evapotranspiration. What seems simple will blow your mind!

Cryptography and Quantum Physics Cryptography and Quantum Physics

By Scott McKinney |

Recent discoveries in the branch of physics known as quantum mechanics have powerful applications in the field of network security – they have the potential to break forms of internet security based on mathematics such as the RSA algorithm, and also present new ways to safely send information. In this article we’ll see how a physics-based method can be used to secure online information.

By Scott McKinney |

**Updated:**2016-02 |**Views**: 2050Recent discoveries in the branch of physics known as quantum mechanics have powerful applications in the field of network security – they have the potential to break forms of internet security based on mathematics such as the RSA algorithm, and also present new ways to safely send information. In this article we’ll see how a physics-based method can be used to secure online information.

Dynamics, Chaos, Fractals (pt 1) Dynamics, Chaos, Fractals (pt 1)

By Scott McKinney |

The study of dynamical systems, natural or abstract systems that evolve at each instance in time according to a specific rule, is an active and fruitful area of research in mathematics. Its study has yielded insights into the nature of social networks such as Facebook, the spread of diseases such as influenza, and the behavior of the financial markets. In this series of posts, we’ll look in depth at dynamical systems, as well as at the related subjects of chaos theory and fractals, all of which are both interesting and useful for understanding our world.

By Scott McKinney |

**Updated:**2016-02 |**Views**: 3361The study of dynamical systems, natural or abstract systems that evolve at each instance in time according to a specific rule, is an active and fruitful area of research in mathematics. Its study has yielded insights into the nature of social networks such as Facebook, the spread of diseases such as influenza, and the behavior of the financial markets. In this series of posts, we’ll look in depth at dynamical systems, as well as at the related subjects of chaos theory and fractals, all of which are both interesting and useful for understanding our world.

Game Theory and the Nash Equilibrium Game Theory and the Nash Equilibrium

By Lê Nguyên Hoang |

In the movie “A Beautiful Mind”, the character is John Nash. He is one of the founders of a large and important field of applied mathematics called game theory. Game Theory is the study of human interactions. Its fallouts in economy, politics or biology are countless. This article gives you an introduction to the concepts of this amazing way of thinking.

By Lê Nguyên Hoang |

**Updated:**2016-01 |**Views**: 10248In the movie “A Beautiful Mind”, the character is John Nash. He is one of the founders of a large and important field of applied mathematics called game theory. Game Theory is the study of human interactions. Its fallouts in economy, politics or biology are countless. This article gives you an introduction to the concepts of this amazing way of thinking.

Marriage Assignment Problem and Variants Marriage Assignment Problem and Variants

By Lê Nguyên Hoang |

Marriage problems consist in matching boys and girls. They are a very interesting class of problems that include assignment problems, which have a very large range of applications. Additional results have been found for variants which include the introduction of boys and girls’ preferences, and cases where people cannot be categorized into two groups.

By Lê Nguyên Hoang |

**Updated:**2016-02 |**Views**: 5035Marriage problems consist in matching boys and girls. They are a very interesting class of problems that include assignment problems, which have a very large range of applications. Additional results have been found for variants which include the introduction of boys and girls’ preferences, and cases where people cannot be categorized into two groups.

Construction and Definition of Numbers Construction and Definition of Numbers

By Lê Nguyên Hoang |

Although they have been used for thousands of years, an actual definition of numbers was given less than a century ago! From the most fundamental level of set theory, this article takes you to the journey of the construction of natural, integer, rational, real and complex numbers.

By Lê Nguyên Hoang |

**Updated:**2016-02 |**Views**: 5340Although they have been used for thousands of years, an actual definition of numbers was given less than a century ago! From the most fundamental level of set theory, this article takes you to the journey of the construction of natural, integer, rational, real and complex numbers.

Dynamics, Chaos, Fractals (pt 2) Dynamics, Chaos, Fractals (pt 2)

By Scott McKinney |

Dynamical systems such as a system of 3 planetary bodies can exhibit surprisingly complicated behavior. If the initial state of the system is slightly varied, the resulting system behaves in a radically different manner. This “sensitivity to initial conditions” is a key element of what’s become (perhaps disproportionately) well-known as chaos. Using the mathematical notion of iterative systems, we can model such systems and understand how chaos arises out of deceptively simple foundations.

By Scott McKinney |

**Updated:**2015-12 |**Views**: 1484Dynamical systems such as a system of 3 planetary bodies can exhibit surprisingly complicated behavior. If the initial state of the system is slightly varied, the resulting system behaves in a radically different manner. This “sensitivity to initial conditions” is a key element of what’s become (perhaps disproportionately) well-known as chaos. Using the mathematical notion of iterative systems, we can model such systems and understand how chaos arises out of deceptively simple foundations.